Endocannabinoid System

Endocannabinoid system in dogs

There’s
been
an
explosion
of
interest
in

Cannabidiol
(CBD)

in
recent
years
as
pet
parents
everywhere
are
beginning
to
discover
the
infinite
health
benefits
afforded
by
daily
supplementation
of
CBD
for
their

aging
pets.

Perhaps
the
most
remarkable
thing
about
CBD
is
the
sheer
number
and
variety
of
its
potential

therapeutic
applications

to
provide
better
comfort
and
care
for
our
canine
companions.

But
how
can

CBD
from
hemp

impact
so
many
different,
seemingly
unrelated,
biological
pathways
to
improve
the
health
of
your
dog?

While
more
refined
research
into
the
specific
metabolic
actions
of
CBD
is
still
warranted,
what
is
currently
known
is
that
CBD
works
well
for
such
a
wide
variety
of
canine
diseases
&
health
challenges
because
it
contributes
both
directly
&
indirectly
to
the
functional
activity
of
the
canine

Endocannabinoid
System
(ECS).


To
understand
how
cannabinoids
can
provide
such
a
wide
range
of
benefits
to
your
pet
(from

behavioral

and

anxiety
disorders

to

nerve
pain

attenuation
and
even

cancer

tumor
treatment)
it
is
necessary
to
first
review
the
basic
biological
functions
that
underlie
the
Endocannabinoid
System’s
primary
role
in
maintaining


homeostasis
.


Homeostasis

is
a
state
of
equilibrium–more
specifically,
it’s
the
way
in
which
your
dog’s
body
functions
to
ensure
his
internal
systems
are
regulated
properly
to
maintain
a
balanced,
healthy
state
even
during
times
of
stress,
illness
or
injury.

A
good
example
to
describe
this
balanced
state
is
inflammation–by
itself
inflammation
is
a
necessary
process
to
heal
an
injury–but
when
the
system
produces
too
much
inflammation,
then
this
can
lead
to
further
tissue
damage;
but
insufficient
inflammation
can
impair
or
even
inhibit
the
normal
healing
process.

The
canine
ECS
acts
as
a
critical
internal
monitoring
system
that
can
make
adjustments
and
correct
imbalances
to
ensure
appropriate
levels
of

inflammation

are
closely
maintained–all
performed
on
‘auto-pilot’.

In
it’s
most
basic
form,
the
endocannabinoid
system
is
the
‘endogenous
homeostatic
mechanism’
that
helps
your
dog
adapt
to
everyday
biological
stresses
that,
if
left
unchecked,
can
lead
to

pain,

discomfort
and
long-term
chronic
disease.


Endocannabinoid
System
Discovery

Unraveling
The
Mystery

The
Endocannibinoid
System
(ECS)
within
your
dog’s
body
regulates
proper
functioning
of
cells,
organs
and
entire
systems,
but
it’s
most
important
role
is
that
it
acts
as
the

Master
Control
Center

for
many
of
the
life-sustaining
processes
that
go
on
everyday
without
you
(or
your
dog)
being
aware.

Endocannabinoid system

The
canine
ECS
acts
as
a
critical
internal
monitoring
system
that
can
make
adjustments
and
correct
imbalances
to
keep
your
dog
healthy.

Twenty-eight
years
after
discovering
THC
in
1964,
medical
researchers
identified
the
brain’s
first
“endogenous-cannabinoid”
or
endo-cannabinoid,
along
with
their
related
receptor
sites.

The
identification
of
cannabinoid
receptors
found
on
the
surface
of
human
cells
triggered
an
exponential
growth
of
studies
exploring
the
Endocannabinoid
System
(ECS)
and
it’s
impact
on
the
health
of
dogs.
The
canine
ECS
has
since
been
implicated
in
a
growing
number
of
physiological
functions,
both
in
the
central
and
peripheral
nervous
systems
and
peripheral
organs.

The
initial
presence
of
cannabinoid
receptors
in
the
canine
Central
Nervous
System
(CNS)
was
first
reported
by

Herkenham

who
used
autoradiographic
studies
to
identify
the
distribution
of
CB1
receptors
in
specific
parts
of
the
canine
brain.
These
early
studies
identified
physical
structures
in
specific
areas
of
the
brain
that
respond
to
endocannabinoids
either
produced
naturally
by
the
body
or
taken
in
from
external
sources.

Canine Endocannabinoid System Infographic. CBD receptors in dogs

Primary
types
of
Cannabidiol
(CBD)
receptor
sites
found
in
dogs
are
CB1
&
CB2.

The
crucial
role
the
ECS
plays
in
maintaining
homeostasis
is
not
limited
to
dogs–a
closer
look
into
the
wizardry
behind
the
ECS
as
an
essential
instrument
in
regulating
canine
health
reveals
it’s
widespread
distribution
throughout
the
animal
kingdom.
By
comparing
the
genetics
of
cannabinoid
receptors
in
different
species,
scientists
estimate
that
the
endocannabinoid
system
(ECS)
evolved
in
primitive
animals
over
600
million
years
ago.

CBD
is
subtle,
like
a
whisper–but
it
carries
within
it
millions
of
years
of
potent
evolutionary
intelligence.


Endocannabinoid
System
Function

The
ECS
controls
everything
from
relaxation,
to
eating,
sleeping,
inflammation
and
even
cognitive
function.
In
a
nutshell,
your
dog’s
Endocannabinoid
System
is
responsible
for
making
sure
the
entire
body
is
working
optimally
to
balance
and
maintain
homeostasis
within
a
narrow
range.

Conditions
need
to
be
just
right
for
cells
to
maintain
optimum
performance
and
the
exquisite
mechanisms
of
the
canine
ECS
have
evolved
to
make
adjustments
to
draw
them
back
to
the
pre-set
zone
if
they
move
out
of
closely
defined
parameters.

ECS
provides
homeostasis
in
the
following
critical
systems
&
processes:

  • Neuroprotection

    of
    nerves
    &
    nervous
    system
  • Modulation
    of

    immune
    system

  • Regulation
    of
    pain

    (local
    and
    systemic)
  • Tumor
    surveillance
    /
    protection
    against

    cancer
  • Modulate

    seizure

    threshold,
  • Regulate
    Metabolism
    (nutrient
    transport,
    lipid
    storage,
    energy
    metabolism)
  • Controls

    appetite

    &
    digestion
  • Bone
    remodeling
  • Reproduction
    /
    fertility
  • Regulate
    endocrine
    function
    (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal
    axis).

Endocannabinoid
System
Explained

The
importance
of
phytocannabinoids
in
canine
health

It’s
important
to
note
that
the
canine
Endocannabinoid
System
(ECS)
is
just
one
of
many
regulatory
systems
in
the
canine
body–but
research
is
proving
it
to
bare
profound
significance
in
overall
maintenance
of
optimal
health
as
well
as
rehabilitate
dysfunction
and
forestall
disease
processes
in
our
family
pets.

CBD oil for dogs. Cannabis for dogs. Hemp CBD oil.

At
those
times
when
there’s
an
imbalance
in
a
dog’s
physiology,
the
ECS
triggers
the
release
of
enzymes
that
synthesize
endocannabinoids.
The
primary
synthesized
endocannabinoids
are


Anandamide

(from
the
Sanskrit
word

‘ananda,’

which
means
‘eternal
bliss’
or
‘supreme
joy),
and


2-arachidonoylglycerol.

These
endocannabinoids
interact
with
Cannabinoid
Receptors,
which
are
present
in
the
brain
cells
and
also
in
the
cells
throughout
the
dog’s
body
and
extremities.

Unlike
all
other
known
receptor
systems,
biological
information
via
the
ECS
flows
backwards,
or
“upstream,”
in
contrast
to
traditional
neural
pathways

a
process
known
as
retrograde
transmission.
This
is
one
of
the
ways
that
the
ECS
protects
the
nervous
system
from
hyperactivity
during
seizures.
As
these
Cannabinoid
Receptors
are
‘activated’,
they
direct
the
passage
of
neurotransmitters
through
to
other
cells.
This
process
further
sends
chemical
messages
to
the
nerve
cells
calling
out
for
required
adjustments.

Eventually,
this
internal
feedback
system
promotes
a
biochemical
response
where
the
imbalanced
function
is
brought
back
to
its
normal
stance.

In
everyday
situations,
the
endocannabinoid
system’s
function
is
believed
to
help
mediate
emotions
of
happiness
&
joy,
consolidate
memories,
and
coordinate
important
inflammation
and
regulate
immune
system

allergy

responses.

Many
endurance
runners
have
experienced
a
‘natural
high’
because
of
the
actions
of
the
Endocannabinoid
System
on
the
brain.
Vigorous
exercise
stimulates
the
release
of
anandamide
and
with
it
the
sense
of
euphoric
well-being
referred
to
as
a
‘runner’s
high’–all
due
to
elevated
levels
of
endocannabinoids.

 

Dog pain relief

Knowing
the
location
of
Cannabinoid
receptors
(CB1
in
brain
&
CB2
in
periphery)
can
give
you
an
idea
about
the
potential
targets
for
treatment
of
certain
canine
conditions.

The
canine
Endocannabinoid
System
(ECS)
is
a
vital
molecular
communication
system
of
receptors,
enzymes
and
endogenous
ligands
set
up
to
help
maintain
vital
internal
stability
and
equilibrium
by
leveraging
“tools”
in
the
form
of
nutrients
and
compounds
found
in
their
diet
or
through
supplementation
of
phytocannabinoids
in
the
form
of
CBD.

Phytocannabinoids
are
specialized
nutrients
that
promote
homeostasis
at
every
level
of
biological
life;
from
the
sub-cellular,
to
whole
body
systems
and
organs–And
CBD
works
as
a
switch
to
regulate
these
essential
physiological
systems
in
a
very
refined
biological
range.
Phytocannabinoids
from

CBD-rich
hemp

can
support
the
optimal
functioning
of
your
dog’s
Endocannabinoid
System
to
keep
them
healthy
and
happy.

Endocannabinoid
System
Definition

the
key
to
understanding
cannabinoid
therapy

The
canine
Endocannabinoid
System
is
composed
of
three
key
components–each
providing
insight
into
how
the
introduction
of
CBD
can
help
alleviate
pain
and
inflammation,
reduce
tumors,
control
seizure
activity
&
provide
more
comfort
and
a
healthier
disposition
for
older,
aging
dogs.

The
canine
Endocannabinoid
System
(ECS)
is
composed
of
cannabinoid
receptors,
their
endogenous
ligands,
and
the
enzymes
involved
in
endocannabinoid
turnover
between
cells.

Three
Components
of
the
Endocannabinoid
System:

  1. Signaling
    Molecules


    Neuromodulators
    (endocannabinoids)
    help
    control
    the
    amount
    of
    neurotransmitters
    that
    are
    released
    and
    determines
    how
    active
    cells
    are
    in
    communicating
    to
    one
    another.

  2. Cannabinoid
    Receptors


    G
    protein
    coupled
    receptors
    known
    as
    Cannabinoid1
    (CB1)
    &
    Cannabinoid2
    (CB2),
    which
    induce
    a
    response
    when
    triggered.

  3. Regulatory
    Enzymes


    Synthesize
    &
    catabolize
    endocannabinoids
    (making
    them
    and
    breaking
    them
    down).

Endocannabinoid system.

The
ECS
works
in
virtually
every
organ
in
the
canine
body:
preserving
nerves
(neuroprotection),
guarding
healthy
cells
against
injury
(cytoprotection),
modulating
their
immune
system,
and
blocking
the
development
of
certain
types
of
cancer.

The
Endocannabinoid
System
(ECS)
is
comprised
of
two
major
types
of
cellular
receptors;
CB1
and
CB2,
each
serving
a
distinct
function
in
canine
health.
Cannabinoid
receptors
are
present
throughout
the
dog’s
body,
embedded
in
cell
membranes,
and
are
believed
to
be
more
numerous
than
any
other
receptor
system.


CBD
receptors

sit
on
the
surface
of
cells
and
“listen”
to
conditions
outside
the
cell.
They
transmit
information
about
changing
conditions
to
the
inside
of
the
cell,
kick-starting
the
appropriate
cellular
responses.
Since
endocannabinoids
are
involved
in
immunomodulation,
neuroprotection
and
control
of
inflammation
in
the
central
nervous
system
(CNS),
modulating
the
activity
of
the
ECS
through
the
application
of
phytocannabinoids
may
influence
a
variety
of
physiological
and
pathological
processes
effecting
canines
as
they
age.

A
growing
body
of
evidence
indicates
that
activation
of
cannabinoid
receptors
by
endogenous,
plant-derived,
or
synthetic
cannabinoids
may
exert
beneficial
effects
on
gastrointestinal
inflammation
and
visceral
pain.

Cannabinoid Receptors.

Knowing
the
location
of
specific
types
of
cannabinoid
receptors
can
give
you
an
idea
about
the
potential
target
for
CBD
therapy
for
conditions
related
to
anxiety
&
seizures
(CB1
receptors)
or
immune
system,
inflammation
and
pain
(CB2
receptors).

CB1
Receptor

Primarily
found
in
the
brain
and
Central
Nervous
System
(CNS)
and
to
a
lessor
extent
in
other
tissues.
In
dogs,
CB1
receptors
have
been
found
to
be
localized
primarily
in
the
brain,
as
with
humans,
but
researchers
have
also
found
them
in
the
liver,
salivary
glands,
immune
cells
and
hair
follicles
(Mercati,
2012)
where
they
modulate
neurotransmitter
release.

The
CB1
receptors
are
expressed
in
high
abundance
in
the
brain’s
hippocampus
and
associated
cortical
regions,
the
cerebellum,
and
the
basal
ganglia
and
appears
to
be
responsible
for
the
mood-enhancing
effects
of
Cannabis.
This
widespread
distribution
in
the
brain
matches
well
with
the
known
pharmacodynamic,
psychotropic
effects
of

THC
(delta-9-tetrahydocannabinol)

in
Cannabis.

In
contrast,
CB1
receptor
binding
is
sparse
or
totally
absent
from
the
brain
stem,
medulla,
and
thalamus–regions
of
the
brain
that
control
breathing
and
heart
rate.
The
absence
of
CB1
receptors
in
these
areas
helps
explain
the
absence
of
life-threatening
effects
on
vital
physiological
functions
usually
associated
with
overdosing
from
Opioids
and
prescription
medications.

Cannabinoid
Receptor
2

CB2
receptors
In
dogs
have
been
found
mostly
in
the
peripheral
organs,
especially
cells
associated
with
the
immune
system
and
gut
but
can
also
be
found
in
other
tissues
and
organs
such
as
liver
and
kidney
as
well
as
skin
cells
(Campora,
2012).

Although
CB1
and
CB2
receptors
share
considerable
structural
similarities,
their
distribution
and
activity
diverge.
Among
other
actions,
including
pain
modulation,
CB2
receptors
are
thought
to
serve
an
important
role
in
immune
function
and
inflammation.
There
is
ample
evidence
that
CB2
receptor
activation
reduces
nociception
(pain
perception).

Increased
activation
of
cannabinoid
type
2
receptors
is
known
to
diminish
the
release
of
pro-inflammatory
factors
and
enhance
the
secretion
of
anti-inflammatory
cytokines.
While
CB1
receptors
are
expressed
mostly
on
neurons
and
mediate
the
inhibition
of
neurotransmitter
release,
CB2
receptors
are
highly
expressed
on
immune
cells
(B-cells,
T-cells
&
macrophages)
modulating
cytokine
release
thereby
decreasing
antigen
presentation
and
modulating
cell
migration.

As
a
result,
many
of
the
medicinal
properties
of
cannabinoid
compounds
have
been
attributed
to
the
CB2
receptor,
especially
those
related
to
chronic
inflammation,
pain
&
immune
system
modulation.

The
key
point
is
that
differential
binding
of
CB1
or
CB2
receptors
by
endocannabinoids,
leads
to
varied
physiological
effects
mediated
via
several
neurotransmitters,
including
acetylcholine,
glutamate,
and
dopamine.
In
total,
each
of
these
biological
actions
is
intended
to
optimize
homeostasis.

Knowing
the
location
of
these
CBD
receptors
can
give
you
an
idea
about
the
potential
target
for
treatment
for
certain
conditions.
For
example,
brain
and
CNS
receptors
(CB1)
impact
sleep,
eating
&
anxiety
behaviors;
while
immune
system,
pain
and
inflammatory
response
are
mediated
by
CB2
type
receptors.


Role
Of
The
Endocannabinoid
System

So
it’s
easy
to
see
that
by
regulating
your
dog’s

homeostasis

through
a
finely
tuned
Endocannabinoid
System
(ECS)
with
cannabinoid
therapy
you
are
establishing
the
critical
foundation
for
maintaining
your
dog’s
health
and
potentially
avoiding
more
serious
medical
conditions.

The
new
field
of
scientific
discovery
into
how
the
ECS
functions
will
change
veterinary
medicine
forever
and
prove
CBD
the
gold
standard
for
treating
many
canine
disease
processes.

The
Evolution
of
Canine
Cannabinoid
Therapy

A
Bright
Future
of
Intrigue
&
Investigation

Dogs
are
subject
to
the
same
toxins
and
chemicals
that
we
humans
are
exposed
to–But
dogs
age
much
faster!

Canines
experience
earlier
onset
of
changes
in
their
metabolism,
their
bone
&
joint
structure
and
even
memory
and
alertness
that
cause
discomfort
and
pain.

As
our
knowledge
of
the
600-million
year
old
Endocannabinoid
System
expands,
it’s
becoming
more
clear
how
this

Master
Control
Switch

effects
virtually
all
canine
physiology.
This
new
field
of
scientific
study
will
change
veterinary
medicine
forever
and
offer
pet
parents
a
natural
means
to
care
for
their
canine
companions.

Although
CBD
is
not
a
medication
to
“treat”
a
specific
ailment
or
disease,
so
to
speak.
It
is,
however,
the
very
thing
that
straightens
out
the
diversion
of
healthy
function
and
rights
the

neurological

and
immunological
pathways.
CBD’s
ability
to
interact
with
multiple
organ
systems
at
a
cellular
level,
combined
with
its
remarkable

safety
profile

and
extremely
low
toxicity,
signifies
a
very
bright
future
for
it’s
daily
use
in
natural
wellness
and
holistic
pet
care.

By
supporting
your
dogs’
Endocannabinoid
System
(ECS)
with
daily
CBD
supplementation
you’re
supporting
the
fundamental
biology
of
well-being.
Dogs
are
meant
to
be
active,
dynamic
beings
and
by
recognizing
the
critical
function
the
ECS
has
on
your
dogs
health
can
help
them
be
the
best
version
of
themselves,
today

And
for
the
foreseeable
future.

Subscribe
to
the
K9
Medibles
Newsletter
to
stay
up
to
date
on
the
latest
CBD
for
dogs
research
and
companion
care
insights.

 

Sharing
is
caring!


Curtis
Barnes

Curtis
has
been
passionate
about
the
welfare
of
animals
since
his
first
dog
rescue
as
a
teenager
growing
up
in
Oregon.

After
studying
Sports
Medicine
&
Biology
at
the
University
of
Oregon,
Curtis
went
on
to
excel
in
a
career
of
Clinical
Nutrition
sales,
later
owning
a
healthcare
company
serving
private-practice
physicians.

Known
for
his
expansive
knowledge
on
natural
health
and
alternative
medicine,
many
physician
friends
came
to
expect
they
would
receive
an
extended
medical
education
when
he
detailed
the
latest
clinical
food-science-research.

Curtis
believes
that
natural
plant-based
therapies
can
be
applied
to
veterinary
care
which
led
him
to
study
the
science
of
Cannabinoid
Medicine.

His
expertise
in
Functional
Medicine
led
him
to
formulate
a
unique
hemp-based
canine
care
product,
Canine
Support
Formula,
fulfilling
a
dream
to
combine
natural
pet-care
strategies
with
the
new
therapeutic
potential
of
medical
cannabis.

In
reverence
for
his
own
dog,
Curtis
has
dedicated
his
company,
K9
Medibles,
to
improving
the
health
and
longevity
of
all
dogs.
With
a
soft-spot
for
older,
senior
dogs,
he
affectionately
calls
every
dog
a “pup”.

As
a
Native
Oregonian,
Curtis
loves
the
beautiful
scenery
&
outdoor
activities
of
hiking
and
biking
in
his
home
State.

To
learn
more
about
Curtis
and
how
he
can
help
your
dog,
visit
https://www.k9-medibles.com/about-us/

Latest
posts
by
Curtis
Barnes

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